Most negligence cases require the Plaintiff to prove the same four elements; duty, breach, causation, and damages.
Actual cause or cause in fact is the actual event that caused the harm. The harm would not have happened but for the actual cause event occurring. Proximate cause is also known as legal cause. To win a negligence claim, the plaintiff must show more than just breach by the Defendant toward the Plaintiff. The negligent content must also be the legal cause of the Plaintiff’s injuries. The Restatement (Second) of Torts requires two elements to be met to determine whether an action is the legal cause of the Plaintiff’s injuries. First, the tortious conduct must be a substantial factor in bringing about the injury. Second, there must not be a rule of law which prevents the defendant from being liable for his negligence.